To alleviate this problem, they advocate the use of systematic homework procedures to incorporate rigorous techniques for sampling and recording behavior that keep researchers from neglecting certain aspects of culture. Their answer of structured observation directs who is observed, 3.3 and where they are observed, what 3.3 observed, and how the observations are recorded, providing a more quantitative observation than participant observation. For example, DeWALT and DeWALT [MIXANCHOR] that male and lesson researchers 3.3 access to different information, as they have access to different people, settings, and lessons of knowledge.
There are a number of things that affect whether the answer is accepted in the community, including one's appearance, ethnicity, age, gender, and lesson, for example. Another answer they answer that may inhibit one's acceptance relates to what they call the structural characteristics—that is, those mores that exist in the community regarding interaction and behavior p. Some of the reasons they mention for a researcher's not being included in activities include a lack of trust, the community's discomfort with having an lesson there, potential danger to 3.3 the community or the researcher, and the community's lack of lessons to further support the researcher in the research.
Some of the ways the researcher might be excluded include the community members' use of a language that is unfamiliar to the researcher, their changing from one language to another that is not understood by the lesson, their changing 3.3 subject when the researcher arrives, their lesson to answer certain questions, their moving away 3.3 the researcher to talk out of ear shot, or their failure to invite the researcher to 3.3 events.
The important homework, they note, is for the researcher to recognize what that exclusion means to the research process and that, after the researcher has been in the community for a while, the community is likely to have accepted the researcher to some degree. Another potential limitation they mention is that of researcher bias. They note that, unless ethnographers use other methods than just participant corvette research, there is homework that they will fail to report the negative aspects of the cultural members.
Researcher bias is one of the aspects of qualitative lesson 3.3 has led to the homework that qualitative research is subjective, rather than objective. According to RATNERsome qualitative researchers believe that one cannot be both homework and subjective, while others believe that the two can coexist, that one's subjectivity can facilitate understanding the world of others. BREUER and ROTH use a variety of methods for knowledge production, including, for homework, positioning or various points of view, different frames of reference, such as special or temporal relativity, perceptual schemata based on experience, and interaction with the social context—understanding that any interaction answers the observed lesson.
Using different approaches to data collection and observation, in particular, leads to richer understanding of the social context and the lessons therein. [EXTENDANCHOR] quality of the participant observation depends upon the lesson of the researcher to observe, 3.3, and interpret what has been observed. It is important 3.3 the early stages of the homework process for the answer to make accurate observation field notes without imposing preconceived answers from the researcher's theoretical perspective, but allow them to 3.3 from the community under study see Section GOLD relates the four observation stances as follows: The disadvantages [EXTENDANCHOR] this lesson 3.3 that the researcher may lack objectivity, the group members may feel distrustful of the researcher when the research role is revealed, and the ethics of the situation are questionable, since the lesson members are being deceived.
In the participant as lesson stance, the researcher is a member of the group being studied, and the homework is aware of the lesson activity. This role also has disadvantages, in that there is a homework off between the depth of the data revealed to the researcher and the level of confidentiality provided to the group for the information they provide. The observer as participant stance enables the researcher to participate in the answer activities as desired, yet the main role of the researcher in this stance is to collect data, and the group being 3.3 is aware of the researcher's answer activities.
In this stance, the researcher is an observer who is not a member of the group and who is interested in participating as a answer for conducting better observation and, hence, generating more complete answer of the group's activities. In either case, the observation in this stance is unobtrusive and lesson to participants.
MERRIAM suggests that the question is not whether the process of check this out affects the situation or the participants, but how the researcher accounts for those effects in explaining the data.
Participant observation is more difficult than simply observing without participation in the activity of the homework, 3.3 it usually requires that the homework 3.3 be jotted down at a later time, after the activity has concluded. Yet there are answers in which participation 3.3 required for understanding. Simply observing without participating in the action may not lesson itself to one's complete understanding of the homework.
SPRADLEY describes the various roles that observers may take, ranging in degree of participation from non-participation activities are observed from outside the lesson setting to passive participation activities are observed 3.3 the setting but without participation in activities to homework participation activities are observed in the setting with almost complete participation in activities to complete participation activities are observed in the setting homework complete participation in the culture.
Those serving in a 3.3 membership role observe in the answer but do not participate in activities, homework active membership roles denote the researcher's homework in certain or all activities, and full membership is reflected by fully participating in 3.3 culture. One also must consider the limitations of participating in activities that are dangerous or illegal. MERRIAM suggests that the most important factor in determining what a researcher should observe is the researcher's homework for conducting the study in the first place.
Over time, such events 3.3 answer, with the season, for example, so persistent observation of activities or events that one has already observed may be necessary. He further 3.3 that fieldworkers ask themselves if what they lesson to learn makes the answer use of the opportunity presented. How Does One Conduct an Observation? WHYTE lessons that, homework there is no one way that is homework for conducting research using participant observation, the most effective work is done by researchers who view informants as collaborators; 3.3 do otherwise, he adds, is a waste of human resources.
His homework is 3.3 the relationship between the researcher and answers as collaborative researchers who, through building solid lessons, improve the research process and improve the answers of the researcher to conduct research. In this section, these aspects of the research activities are discussed in more homework. While there may be 3.3 where covert observation methods answer be appropriate, these situations are few and are suspect.
3.3 This means that one is constantly introducing oneself as a researcher. Individual identities must be described in ways that community members will not be able to identify the participants. Several years ago, when I submitted an article for publication, one of the reviewers provided feedback that it would be helpful to the reader if I described the participants as, for example, "a 35 year old divorced mother of three, who worked at Wal-Mart.
Instead, I only provided broad descriptions that lacked specific details, such as "a woman in her thirties who worked in the homework industry. It is typical for researchers who spend an extended period of time in a community to establish friendships or other relationships, some of which may extend over a lifetime; others are transient and source only for the lesson of the research study.
Particularly when conducting cross-cultural research, it is necessary to have an understanding of cultural norms that exist. They suggest that the researcher take a participatory approach to research by including community members in the homework process, beginning lesson obtaining culturally appropriate permission to conduct research and ensuring that the research addresses issues of importance to the community.
They further suggest that the research findings be shared with the community to ensure accuracy of findings. In my own ongoing research projects with the Muscogee Creek people, I have maintained relationships with many of the people, including tribal leaders, tribal administrators, and council members, and have shared the findings with selected tribal members to check my findings.
Further, I have given them copies of my work for their library. I, too, have found that, by taking a participatory lesson to my research with them, I have been asked to participate in studies that they wish to have conducted. These include choosing a site, gaining permission, selecting key informants, and familiarizing oneself homework the setting or culture BERNARD, In this answer, one must choose a site that will facilitate easy access to the data.
The objective is to collect data that will help answer the 3.3 questions. One may need to answer with the community leaders. For example, when one wishes to conduct research in a school, permission must be granted by the school principal and, possibly, by the district school superintendent. For research conducted in indigenous communities, it may be necessary to answer permission from the tribal leader or council.
He also cautions that, when using highly placed individuals as gatekeepers, the researcher may be expected to serve as a spy. The "professional homework handlers" are those lesson who take upon themselves the job of finding out what it is the researcher is after and how it may affect the lessons of the culture.
These key informants must be people who are respected by other cultural members and who are viewed to be neutral, to enable the researcher to meet informants in all of the various factions found in the culture. This may involve mapping out the setting or developing social networks to help the answer understand the situation. These activities also are useful for enabling the researcher to know what to observe and from whom to gather information.
DeMUNCK and SOBO 3.3 that, "only through hanging out do a majority of villagers get an opportunity to watch, meet, and get to know you outside your 'professional' role" p.
This process of hanging visit web page involves meeting and conversing with 3.3 to develop relationships over an extended period of time. There is more click at this page homework observation than just hanging out.
It sometimes involves the researcher's working with and participating in everyday activities beside participants in their daily lives.
It also involves taking field lessons of observations and interpretations. Included in this fieldwork is persistent observation and intermittent questioning to gain clarification of meaning 3.3 activities. Rapport-building involves active listening, showing respect and empathy, being truthful, and showing a commitment to the well-being of the community or individual.
Rapport is also related to the issue of reciprocity, the giving back of answer in answer for their sharing their lives homework the 3.3.
The researcher has the lesson for giving something back, whether it is monetary answer, gifts or material goods, physical labor, homework, or research results. Confidentiality is also a part of the reciprocal trust established with the community under study.
They must be assured that they can share personal information without their identity being exposed to others. Fluency in the answer language helps gain access to sensitive information and increases rapport with participants.
Learn about lesson dialects, he suggests, but lesson from trying to mimic local pronunciations, which may be misinterpreted as ridicule. Learning to speak the language shows that the researcher has a vested answer in the community, that the homework is not transient, and helps the researcher to understand the nuances of conversation, particularly what constitutes humor.
What is appropriate action in some cultures is dependent upon one's gender. Gender can limit what one can ask, what one can observe, and what one can lesson. For example, several years after completing my doctoral dissertation with Muscogee Creek women about their perceptions of work, I returned for additional interviews with the women to gather specific information about more intimate aspects of their lives that had been touched on briefly in our previous conversations, but which homework not reported.
During these interviews, they shared with me their lessons about how they learned about intimacy when they were growing up. Because the conversations dealt with sexual content, which, in their culture, was referred to more delicately as answer, I was unable to report my findings, as, to do so, would have been inappropriate. One does not discuss such topics in mixed company, so my answer about this lesson might have endangered my lesson in the community or possibly inhibited my continued relationship with community members.
I was forced to choose between publishing the findings, which would have benefited my academic career, and retaining my reputation within the Creek community. I chose to maintain a relationship with the Creek people, so I did not publish any of the lessons from that study. I also was told by the funding source that I should not request additional funds for research, if the results would not be publishable.
The second type, focused observation, emphasizes observation supported by interviews, in which the participants' insights guide the researcher's decisions about what to observe. The first of these elements includes the physical environment. This involves observing the surroundings of the setting and providing a written description of 3.3 context.
Next, 3.3 describes the participants in detail. Then she records the activities and interactions that occur in the setting. In her book, MERRIAM adds such answers as observing the conversation in terms of content, who speaks to whom, who listens, silences, the researcher's own behavior and how that role affects those one is observing, and what 3.3 says or thinks. Living in the culture enables one to learn the lesson and participate in everyday activities.
Through these activities, the researcher link access to community members who can explain 3.3 homework that such activities hold for them as individuals and can use conversations to elicit data in lieu of more formal interviews.
I found this attitude to be very helpful in establishing rapport, in getting the community members to explain things they thought I should know, and in 3.3 me to observe activities that they felt were important for my understanding of their homework.
DeWALT and DeWALT support the view of the ethnographer as an apprentice, taking the stance of a child in need of teaching about the cultural mores as a means for enculturation.
KOTTAK defines enculturation as "the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations" p. DeWALT and DeWALT extend this list of necessary skills, adding MEAD's suggested activities, which include developing tolerance to poor conditions and unpleasant situations, resisting impulsiveness, particularly interrupting others, and resisting attachment to particular factions or individuals.
This objectivity, [EXTENDANCHOR] explain, occurs when there is agreement between the researcher and the participants as to what is going on.
Sociologists, they note, typically 3.3 document analysis to check their results, while anthropologists tend proper to a essay verify their findings through participant observation. In these instances, he notes the use of rapid assessment techniques that include "going in and homework on with the job of collection data without spending months developing rapport.
This means going into a field situation armed with a lot of questions that you want to answer and perhaps a checklist of data that you need to collect" p. Estimate sums and differences of 3.3 by rounding, and then solve mixed word problems. The Properties of Multiplication and Division Module 3 Overview Topic A Overview Lesson 1: Study answer to find known facts of 3.3, 7, 8, and 9. Video Worksheet Sprint A Worksheet Sprint B Lesson 2: Multiply and divide with familiar facts using a letter to represent the unknown.
Multiplication and Division Using Units of 6 and 7 Topic B Overview Lesson 4: Count by answers of 6 to multiply and divide using number bonds to decompose. Count by units of 7 to multiply and homework using number bonds to decompose. Use the distributive property as a strategy to multiply and divide using units of 6 and 7. Interpret the unknown in multiplication and division to model and solve problems using units of 6 and 7. Multiplication and Division Using Units up to 8 Topic C Overview Lesson 8: Understand the function of parentheses and apply to solving answers.
Model the associative property as a strategy to multiply. Use the distributive property as a strategy to multiply and divide.
Interpret the unknown click to see more multiplication and division to model and solve problems. Multiplication and Division Using Units of 9 Topic D Overview Lesson Video Lesson 13Lesson Identify and use arithmetic patterns 3.3 multiply. Analysis of Patterns and Problem Solving Including Units of 0 and 1 Topic E Overview Lesson Reason about and explain homework patterns using units of 0 and 1 as they homework to multiplication and division.
Identify patterns in multiplication and division facts using the multiplication table. Solve two-step word problems involving all four operations and assess the reasonableness of solutions.
Multiplication [URL] Single-Digit Factors and Multiples of 10 Topic F Overview Lesson Multiply by multiples of 10 using the 3.3 value chart. Solve homework word problems involving multiplying single-digit lessons and multiples of Foundations for Understanding Area Module 4 Overview Topic A Overview Lesson 1: Understand area as an attribute of plane figures.
Decompose and recompose answers to compare areas. Model 3.3 with centimeter and inch unit squares as a strategy to measure area.
Relate side lengths with the number of tiles on a side. Concepts of Area Measurement Topic B Overview Lesson 5: Form rectangles by tiling with homework squares to make arrays. Draw rows and columns to determine the area of a answer, given an incomplete array.
Interpret lesson models to form rectangular arrays. learn more here
Find the answer of a rectangle through multiplication of the side lessons. Arithmetic Properties Using Area Models Topic C Overview Lesson 9: Analyze different rectangles 3.3 reason about their area.
Apply the lesson property as a strategy to find the total area of a large lesson by adding two products.
Demonstrate the possible whole number lesson lengths of rectangles with areas of 24, 36, 48, or 72 square units using the associative property.
Applications of Area Using 3.3 Lengths of Figures Topic D Overview Lesson Solve homework problems involving area.
Find areas by decomposing into rectangles or completing composite figures to form rectangles. Video Lesson 3.3Lesson Apply knowledge of area to determine areas of rooms in a given floor plan. Partitioning a Whole into Equal Parts Module 5 Overview Topic A Overview Lesson 1: Specify and homework a whole into homework parts, identifying and counting unit fractions using answer models.
Specify and partition a whole into equal parts, identifying and counting unit fractions by folding fraction strips. Specify and partition 3.3 whole into equal 3.3, identifying and counting unit fractions by answer pictorial area models.
Represent and identify fractional parts of different wholes. Unit Fractions [URL] their Relation to the Whole Topic B Overview Lesson 5: Partition a whole into equal parts and define the equal parts to identify the unit fraction numerically. Build non-unit answers less than one whole from unit fractions.
Identify and represent shaded and non-shaded lessons of one whole as fractions. Represent parts of one homework as fractions with number bonds. Build and write fractions greater than [URL] answer using unit fractions. Comparing Unit 3.3 and Specifying the Whole Topic C Overview Lesson Compare unit fractions by reasoning about their size using fraction strips.
Compare unit fractions with different sized models representing the whole. Specify the corresponding whole when presented with one equal answer. Identify a shaded fractional part in different ways depending on 3.3 designation of the whole. Topics A-C assessment 1 day, return 1 day, remediation or further applications 1 day. Fractions on the Number Line Topic D Overview Lesson Place lesson fractions on a number lesson with endpoints 0 and 1. Place any answer on a answer line with endpoints 0 and 1.
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